IANA

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IANA (от англ. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority — «Администрация адресного пространства Интернет») является отделом ICANN, который отвечает за ведение реестров уникальных идентификаторов Интернета, включая доменные имена, параметры протокола и номера Интернета (IP-адреса и номера автономной системы).

IANA распространяет блоки IP-адресов на пять (5) региональных интернет-реестров (RIR).

Краткий обзор[править | править вики-текст]

По мере развития Интернета возникла необходимость в централизованной организации, которая выполнила бы следующие задачи / закрывала бы потребности:

  • взять на себя ответственность за управление параметрами
  • убедиться, что все используют одни и те же протоколы и параметры
  • координировать назначение идентификаторов
  • гарантировать, что создание и распределение адресов и доменных имен выполняется точно, на основе принципов, приемлемых для всех.

Организация, которая отвечала за эти задачи / потребности, - IANA. Из-за роста интернета в 1990-х годах также возникла необходимость в организации, которая возьмет на себя ответственность за центральную регистрацию доменных имен и адресов. Именно так была создана ICANN. [1]

ICANN отвечает за централизацию регистрационных задач, связанных с IP-адресами, назначением DNS и управлением параметрами протокола, но ICANN не заменяет IANA. Между ICANN и IANA существует много различий, особенно в отношении их атрибуций, целей и обязанностей.

IANA и ICANN[править | править вики-текст]

  • IANA - это учреждение, которое управляет TLD (домены верхнего уровня) и занимается назначением IP-адресов и диапазонов, портов и других связанных атрибутов.[2]
  • ICANN, действующая на основе Меморандума о взаимопонимании (MoU), является институцией, которая управляет IANA.

Функции IANA[править | править вики-текст]

  • Помимо управления корневой зоной DNS, IANA также управляет реестром .int и зоной .arpa;
  • Что касается номерных ресурсов, IANA имеет право координировать глобальное IP-пространство, соответствующее AS, и распределять их по RIR (региональным интернет-реестрам);
  • IANA представляет собой основной репозиторий для реестров номеров и имен протоколов. [3]

Доменные имена[править | править вики-текст]

IANA отвечает за администрирование доменных имен с привлечением представителей операторов TLD с операторами корневого сервера, а также работу с доменами .int и .arpa.

Чтобы лучше управлять распределением интернационализированных доменных имен (IDN), IANA разработала «таблицы IDN», которые предоставляют собой информацию, относящуюся к признанным символам на разных языках и другую информацию, связанную с TLD.

Параметры протокола[править | править вики-текст]

Основываясь на IETF, IANA отвечает за администрирование схем URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) и кодировку символов для использования в Интернете.

Айпи адрес[править | править вики-текст]

IP-адрес - это уникальный идентификатор, назначенный каждому устройству, подключенному к Интернету, например, ПК, планшетам, смартфонам, принтерам и т.д.

IANA отвечает за делегирование IP-адресов RIR. В свою очередь, каждый RIR (региональный реестр Интернета) отвечает за распределение IP-адресов в зависимости от зоны / области, которой они управляют. Точно так же, в случае, когда RIR запрашивает больше IP-адресов для распределения, IANA оценивает запрос и может сделать дополнительное распределение для RIR. [4]

IANA Contract[править | править вики-текст]

Originally, the IANA functions were managed by the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at the University of Southern California (USC) through the leadership of Dr. Jon Postel under a contract with the Defense Advance Research Project Agency (DARPA).[5]

In 1997, the United States government under Pres. Bill Clinton's administration, approved the transition of the technical management of the Domain Name System (DNS), including the IANA functions, to the private sector. On January 30, 1998, the Department of Commerce (DOC) released the Green Paper recommending the establishment of a new, private, non-profit organization to take over the management of the DNS. The global internet stakeholders shared their comments and recommendations regarding the Green Paper, which were compiled and studied by the NTIA. In June 1998, NTIA published the White Paper, which contains the policy statement of the U.S. government regarding the transition process for the technical management of the DNS to a new corporation to be created based on the principles of stability, competition, private bottom-up coordination, and representation.[6]

On November 25, 1998, the Department of Commerce formally recognized ICANN as the new organization responsible for administering the DNS through a Memorandum of Understanding signed by both parties.[7] This came about as a result of the infamous "DNS Wars".

The Department of Commerce awarded a contract to ICANN to manage the IANA functions on February 9, 2000.[8] The agreement was renewed several times in 2001,[9] 2003, [10] and 2006 [11]. The contract in 2006 was modified several times. The latest modification extended ICANN's contract until September 30, 2012.[12]

With the expiration of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Functions contract, a new phase of the status of ICANN was initiated by the National Telecommunication and information Administration’s (NTIA’s) announcement in March 2014.

This phase (the IANA stewardship transition) was expected to complete by 30th September 2015.

DOC Notice of Inquiry on IANA Functions[править | править вики-текст]

On February 25, 2011, the DOC through NTIA issued a Notice of Inquiry (NOI) to review the IANA functions contract. ICANN's IANA functions contract was to on September 11, 2011. The internet community was encouraged to provide their feedback to the different questions posted by NTIA that aims help improve the operations of the IANA functions.The NOI was the first comprehensive review conducted by the DOC since ICANN took over the responsibilities of the IANA functions in 2000. The deadline for comments was March 31, 2011.[13] [14]

ICANN acknowledged the importance of a comprehensive review of the IANA Functions contract. ICANN suggested to change the conditions of the procurement contract between the U.S. government and Internet governing body into a Cooperative Agreement. In addition, ICANN also recommended including the principles of accountability and transparency in the next framework of the agreement and to restrict the scope of the IANA functions. ICANN wanted to continue to perform the existing IANA function by entering separate agreements with the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to perform the port and protocol parameter registry functions and the management of .arpa top level domain name (TLD).[15]

On June 14, 2011, the DOC issued a Further NOI to solicit public comments regarding its draft Statement of Work (SOW), which included the summary of comments submitted by the public to the first NOI, NTIA's responses, and the detailed work requirements for the IANA Functions.[16]

46 organizations within the global internet community submitted their comments and responses to the SOW.[17] A complete list of the respondents and the summary of their responses are available here

RFP for New IANA Functions Contract[править | править вики-текст]

Following the NOI, the DOC published a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the new IANA Functions contract on November 10, 2011. Interested entities were encouraged to submit their proposals until December 12, 2011. The next contract was set to commence on April 1, 2012 until March 31, 2015. The entity chosen to carry out the IANA function will have the option to extend the agreement for another 3 years. [18]

Some members of the internet community believe that ICANN is expected to win the IANA contract and view NTIA's decision to remove the "consensus report" as a softening of its language, while the inclusion of a conflict of interest policy seems to be one of the most significant changes.[19] The discussion of a conflict of interest policy was notably raised by the global internet community after the departure of Peter Dengate Thrush from his position as ICANN Chairman, where he was a strong proponent of the new gTLD expansion program, and immediately joined Minds + Machines, a domain name consulting company. Sen. Ron Wyden called this to the attention of the DOC and recommended the inclusion of "strict ethics guidelines" to prevent a revolving door in the next IANA contract.[20] [21]

One week after the publication of the RFP, the IANA contract was revised to include a "ban on dealing with groups classified as supporting terrorism". The DOC created a new section on data rights stating that the US government has unlimited rights in all data delivered by the contractor under the contract and all data produced through the performance of the contract. A minor revision was made to the wording of the new gTLD section; the old version states that IANA must show that ICANN “followed its policy framework” to approve a gTLD, the new version reads that it must have “followed its own policy framework.”[22]

Requirements for IANA Functions Contract Applicants[править | править вики-текст]

Entities interested in applying to become manager of the IANA Functions must meet the following qualifications:[23]

  • The organization/firm must be US-owned and operated or a fully accredited US college or university located within the 50 states or District of Columbia (DC)
  • Incorporated and organized under the laws of one of the 50 states or DC
  • Must be physically located within the United Stated during the entire duration of the contract
  • Demonstrate that all the primary systems and operations will remain in United States and all the core IANA functions identified in the contract must be performed in the US.
  • Show determination in carrying out its responsibilities in accordance with the standards of the FAR Subpart 9.1
  • Must be able to comply with all the applicable laws and regulations as well as the conditions and terms in the agreement pursuant to the solicitation
  • Demonstrate its capability to perform the required work and the ability to provide a "complete, reasonable and logical" cost data or projected funding

Aside from ICANN, three other organizations submitted their proposals to manage the IANA functions including:[24]

EC Reaction to IANA RFP[править | править вики-текст]

On November 14, 2011, the European Commission (EC) was pleased with the decision of NTIA to open the IANA Functions Contract to other interested parties. According to Neelie Kroes, European Commission Vice-President for the Digital Agenda, "The new IANA tender is a clear step forward for global internet governance. A more transparent, independent and accountable management of the Internet domain names and other resources will reinforce the Internet's role as a global resource."[25] The Commission noted that some of the changes implemented in the contract were based on the suggestions expressed by Kroes during the EU-US bilateral meeting with NTIA Assistant Secretary Larry Strickling in Brussels and during the IGF in Nairobi, held in May and September 2011 respectively. These changes include the provision mandating the next contractor to maintain a strict conflict of interest policy and to provide proper documentation demonstrating that the decision making process related to the introduction or modification of new gTLD is in the public interest.[26]

NTIA Rejects ICANN's Bid & Cancels RFP[править | править вики-текст]

On March 10, 2012, NTIA cancelled the RFP for companies to run IANA, stating that the submitted "proposals did not meet the requirements requested by the global internet community," presumably including ICANN's proposal.[27] Furthermore, NTIA announced that the RFP will be used at a future date, yet to be determined.[28] Given the circumstances, the agency decided to extend ICANN's IANA contract for six months, until September 30, 2012.[29]

NTIA принимает заявку ICANN[править | править вики-текст]

2 июня 2012 года уходящий в отставку генеральный директор Rod Beckstrom подписал новый контракт IANA в качестве последнего акта на должности генерального директора.

Новый контракт включал дополнительные требования в отношении «разделения между разработкой политики, связанной с услугами IANA, и выполнением IANA агентских функций; надежной политики в отношении конфликта интересов всей компании; повышенного уважения к местному национальному законодательству; и серии консультаций для повышения прозрачности и подотчетности». [30]

NTIA Transition Announcement[править | править вики-текст]

Main article: IANA Functions Stewardship Transition

In March 2014 NTIA released a statement that they are intent on transitioning their part of the IANA functions away from NTIA and to the global stakeholder community. The first step in this process is for ICANN to convene stakeholders and create a proposal for how the IANA functions will remain secure and unwavering. The press release outlined a number of principles which the ICANN-community drafted proposal must meet:

  • Must Support and enhance the multistakeholder model;
  • Must Maintain the security, stability, and resiliency of the Internet DNS;
  • Must Meet the needs and expectation of the global customers and partners of the IANA services; and,
  • Must Maintain the openness of the Internet.

The current NTIA contract with ICANN expires on 30 September, 2014, and members of the ICANN community took that date as a deadline for drafting and agreeing on a proposal.[31]

ICANN subsequently published their own press release that applauded NTIA's announcement and called it a recognition of the U.S. government to ICANN's "maturation in becoming an effective multistakeholder organization".[32]

Global media outlets picked up on the NTIA press release, with many United States media reporting that the United States Government was "giving up control of the Internet".

References[править | править вики-текст]

Шаблон:Reflist
  1. IANA creations
  2. IANA attributions
  3. IANA Objectives
  4. IANA IP Addresses
  5. Improvement of Technical Management of Internet Names and Addresses; Proposed Rule
  6. Statement of Policy on the Management of Internet Names and Addresses
  7. Second Status Report Under ICANN/US Government Memorandum of Understanding
  8. IANA Contract, February 9, 2000
  9. IANA Contract 2001
  10. IANA Contract 2003
  11. IANA Contract 2006
  12. Modification 10-Extension of IANA Contract
  13. DOC Notice of Inquiry
  14. A full guide to the new IANA contract
  15. ICANN Response to the DOC Notice of Inquiry
  16. Further Notice of Inquiry
  17. Summary of public comments submitted in response to the IANA Functions Further Notice of Inquiry
  18. IANA RFP-Solicitation Number: SA1301-12-RP-IANA
  19. US puts ICANN contract up for rebid
  20. Senator calls for ICANN ethics controls
  21. So you want to run IANA? An applicant's guide
  22. US quietly revises IANA contract
  23. So you want to run IANA? An applicant's guide
  24. Interested Vendors List
  25. Digital Agenda: Commission welcomes improvements in new IANA contract
  26. European Commission gives qualified thumbs-up to IANA rebid
  27. NTIA says ICANN “does not meet the requirements” for IANA renewal
  28. Notice - Cancelled IANA Functions - Request for Proposal
  29. Notice – Extension IANA Functions Contract
  30. ICANN awarded contract to continue Performing IANA functions, DomainNews.com
  31. Press Release: NTIA Announces Intent to Transition Key Internet Domain Name Functions NTIA.doc.gov; Retrieved 09 July 2014
  32. [https://www.icann.org/resources/press-material/release-2014-03-14-en Press Release March 14, 2014